Is a diversified form of rehabilitation which aims in diminishing negative long-term effects and achieving recovery with the help of a specialized multidisciplinary team with structured organization and processes tailored for individual needs to help neurological patients to improve physiological functioning, activity, and participation by creating learning situations, inducing several means of recovery. In this setting, early initiation of treatment, the application of high intensity with specific goals and active therapies, and the coordinated work and multimodality of a specialized team play a major role.

Despite ongoing improvements in the acute treatment of neurological diseases many survivors are in need of neurorehabilitation, as more than two-thirds show persisting neurologic deficits. While early elements of neurorehabilitation are already taking place on the neurology unit after the acute treatment, the patient with relevant neurologic deficits usually takes part in an organized inpatient multidisciplinary rehabilitation program and eventually continues with therapies in an ambulatory setting afterwards.

Furthermore, several further potential enhancers of neural plasticity, e.g., peripheral and brain stimulation techniques, pharmacological augmentation, and use of robotics, are under evaluation.